Virtual Society?

the social science of electronic technologies


Virtual Society? Project Publications


Journal Articles
Books, Book Chapters and Conference Proceedings
Virtual Society? Discussion Papers
Virtual Society? Project Websites

Journal Articles

Agar, J. (1998) Digital Patina: Texts, Spirit and the First Computer, History and Technology, 15:121-135.

Allen, J. P. "Information Systems as Technological Innovation." Information Technology & People (forthcoming).

Allen, J. P. "Handheld Computing Predictions: What Went Wrong?" In H.-W. Gellersen (Ed.), Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1707 (1999) 117-123.

Allen, J. P. "Who Shapes the Future? Problem Framings and the Development of Handheld Computers." Computers and Society, June (1998) 3-8.

Allen, J. P., "The Evolution of Handheld Computers: Problem Framing and Network Building." In Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Information Systems, K. Kumar and J. I. DeGross (Eds.), New York, ACM Press (1997), 466-469 (CDROM)

Brown, S.D. & Lightfoot, G.M. (1998) Insistent emplacement: Heidegger on the technologies of informing. Information Technology & People, 11(4): 290-304.

Brown, S.D. & Lightfoot, G.M. (2000) 'Memory and mediation: Performing accountability in the context of groupware' submitted to British Journal of Social Psychology (forthcoming)

Brown, S.D. & Lightfoot, G.M.(2000) 'Managing the virtual: Blaming and accusing in electronic communication' in submission to Organization.(forthcoming)

Brown, S.D. & Lightfoot, G.M. (2000) 'Facework: Computer mediated communication and the organisation of meetings' in preparation for submission to Accounting, Management and Information Technologies or the Journal of Management. (forthcoming)

Burrows, R. and Nettleton, S. ‘Reflexive Modernization and the Emergence of Wired Self Help’ in K.Ann Renninger and Wesley Shumar (eds) Building Virtual Communities: Learning and Change in Cyberspace, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Burrows, R., Loader, B., Nettleton, S., Pleace, N and Muncer, S. (2000) ‘Virtual Community Care? Social Policy and the Emergence of Computer Mediated Social Support’ Information, Communication and Society, 3, 1, 2000.

Burt, E and Taylor, J.A. (1999) Voluntary Organisations on the Net: insights and innovations. The New Review of Information Networking, 5, 109-122

Burt E and Taylor, J.A. (2000) "Information and Communication Technologies: Reshaping Voluntary Organisations?". The Journal of Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 11, 2 , 131-143

Burt, E and Taylor, J.A. (2001) "When 'Virtual' meets Values: insights from the voluntary sector", Information Communication and Society, 4, 1, 54-73

Burt, E and Taylor, J.A. (2001) "Advanced Networked Technologies in the UK Voluntary Sector" Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 12 (4), 313-326

Burt, E and Taylor, J.A. (2002) " New Technologies, Embedded Values, and Strategic Change: Evidence from the UK Voluntary Sector" Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, forthcoming

Button, Graham, David Mason and Wes Sharrock, (forthcoming) ‘Reactions to Surveillance Potential Technology in the Print Industry: Towards the Empirical Specification of Resistance and Control’. Work, Employment and Society

Carver, S. (in press) Collaborative spatial decision making over the web. International Transactions in GIS.

Carver, S. and Peckham, R. (1999) Using GIS on the Internet for Planning. In J. Stillwell, S. Geertman & S. Openshaw (Eds.), Geographical Information and Planning (pp. 361-380). Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.

Carver, S., Blake, M., Turton, I. & Duke-Williams, O. (1997) Open spatial decision-making: evaluating the potential of the World Wide Web. in Z. Kemp (ed) Innovations in GIS 4. Taylor & Francis, London. Chapter 19, 267-278.

Carver, S., Blake, M., Turton, I. & Duke-Williams, O. (1996) Where to dispose of Britain’s Nuclear Waste: Open Spatial Decision Making on the Internet.

Carver, S.J. (1991) Integrating multi-criteria evaluation with geographical information systems International Journal of Geographic Information Systems, Vol.5, No.3, pp.321-339.

Cornford, J., ‘The Virtual University is the University Made Concrete’, Paper submitted to Information and Communication Studies.

Hemmings, T.A. (2000) Situated Knowledge and Virtual Education: Problems with Children ‘Learning Through Interaction. In: ‘Children & Technology’ Publication Spring 2000

Hughes, J, O’Brien, J, Randall, D, Rouncefield, M and Tolmie, P (1999) Banking on the Old Technology: understanding the organizational context of ‘legacy’ issues, in Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol 1, Article 21, June 1999

Hughes, J, O’Brien, J, Randall, D, Rouncefield, M and Tolmie, P (forthcoming) 'Some ‘real’ problems of ‘virtual’ organisation', to appear in New Technology, Work and Employment, Volume 16, No. 1, 2001

Ibbotson, T, Barry, N., Bower, J. and Reid, M. (forthcoming) The diffusion of telemedicine Journal of Management in Medicine) to be submitted January 2000

Ibbotson, T, Barry, N., Bower, J. and Reid, M. (forthcoming) Innovation Management (Int Journal of Innovation Management to be submitted February 2000

Ibbotson, T, Barry, N., Bower, J. and Reid, M. (forthcoming) Different perspectives on telemedicine Health Policy to be submitted March 2000

Ibbotson, T, Barry, N., Bower, J. and Reid, M. (forthcoming) Skills for telemedicine (Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare) to be submitted May 2000

Ibbotson, T, Barry, N., Bower, J. and Reid, M. (forthcoming) An ethnographic study of the diffusion process of telemedicine in Scotland J Health Services Policy to be submitted June 2000

Ibbotson, T, Barry, N., Bower, J. and Reid, M. (forthcoming) Doctor patient relationships (publication from York seminar/Int J Heath Technology Assessment) ?date

Kingston, R. (forthcoming) Web Based GIS for Public Participation Decision Making in the UK. In W. Craig, T. Harris and D. Weiner (eds.) Community Participation and Geographic Information Systems. Taylor & Francis.

Kingston, R., Carver, S., Evans, A., and Turton, I. (2000) Web-Based Public Participation Geographical Information Systems: An Aid To Local Environmental Decision-Making. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 109-125.

Knights, D., Noble, F., Vurdubakis, T., and Willmott, H. (Forthcoming.), ‘Chasing Shadows: Control, Virtuality and the Production of Trust’, accepted for publication in Organization Studies,

Knights, D. and Noble, F. (forthcoming)‘Towards virtuality: remote distribution and innovative organisations’, under revision for Human Relations.

Knights, D. Noble, F., Willmott, H.(forthcoming) ‘Is the customer king in the virtual marketplace?: the construction of the consumer in "virtual" financial services’, in preparation for Sociology.

Lankshear, Gloria, David Mason, Graham Button & Sally Coates (forthcoming) Surveillance-capable Technology at Work: A Privacy Issue, Work, Employment and Society.

Lankshear, Gloria, David Mason, Sally Coates & Graham Button (in prep) ‘Privacy and surveillance in the workplace: a study of a call-centre’

Lankshear, Gloria, Peter Cook, David Mason, Sally Coates and Graham Button (2001) " Call centre employees' responses to electronic monitoring: some research findings", Work, Employment and Society, 15(3), 595-605

Lankshear, Gloria and David Mason (2001) 'Technology and ethical dilemmas in a medical setting: Privacy, professional autonomy, life and death', Ethics and Information Technology, 3(3), 225-235

Lea, M., Postmes, T. & Rogers, P. (1999). ‘SIDE-VIEW: An interactive web environment to support group collaborative learning. Educational Technology and Society 2(1): 33–34.

Liff, S., Steward, F. & Watts, P. (1999) ‘Public access to the Internet: New approaches from internet cafes and community technology centres and their implications for libraries’, New Review of Information Networking, 5, 27-41

Liff, S. and Steward, F. (2001) 'Community e-gateways: Locating networks for social inclusion', Information, Communication and Society,  4 (3) 317-340

Light, P., Crook, C., White, S., Nesbitt, E., Barrowcliff, D. & Light, V. (1998) Research note. Learning sites: networked resources and the learning community. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning 14: 166-167.

Light, V., Nesbitt, E., Light, P. & Burns, R. ‘Lets you and me have a little discussion’: computer mediated communication in support of campus-based university courses. Studies in Higher Education (in press).

Lury, C (forthcoming) 'Fealty/Feeltoy: the game of virtual society', March 2000.

McGrail, B.A. (1999) Communication Technology & Local Knowledges: The Case of 'Peripheralised' High-Rise Housing Estates, Urban Geography, 20(4): 303-333.

Muncer, S., Burrows, R., Pleace, N., Loader, B. and Nettleton, S. ‘Births, Deaths, Sex and Marriage...But Very Few Presents? A Case Study of Social Support in Cyberspace’, Critical Public Health, 18, 1, 2000.

Pollock, N., ‘The virtual university as ‘timely and accurate information’’, Paper submitted to Information and Communication Studies.

Pollock, N. and Cornford, J. ‘The Virtual University in theory and practice’, Paper submitted to the British Journal of Educational Technology.

Pollock, N. ‘The construction of use and mis-use: or the ambivalence of workarounds’, submitted to Social Studies of Science.

Pollock, N. & Cornford, J. (2000) 'Theory and Practice of the Virtual University'. In Ariadne, vol. 24 (June). (also available at

Postmes, T., Branscombe, N., Spears, R., & Young, H. (1999). Comparative processes in personal and group judgments: Resolving the discrepancy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76: 320-338.

Postmes, T. & Lea, M. (in press). Out of sight, out of mind? A reappraisal of anonymity effects in group decision support systems. Ergonomics. (Special issue on contemporary theory and methods in the analysis of team working).

Postmes, T., & Spears, R. (1998). Deindividuation and anti-normative behavior: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 123: 238-259.

Postmes, T. Spears, R. & Lea, M. (1998). Breaking or building social barriers? A SIDE analysis of computer-mediated communication. Communication Research 25: 689-715.

Postmes, T., Spears, R. & Lea, M. (in press). The emergence and development of group norms in computer-mediated communication. Human Communication Research.

Raab, C.D. (1998)‘Trust, Technology and Privacy’, Ends and Means, 3(1): 3-10

Raab, C.D. (1998) Sectoral Approaches to Data Protection, Privacy & Informatie, 1(2): 60-64

Raab, C.D. (1999) How Adequate is Privacy Protection Outside the EU?, Information Technology and Public Policy, Supplement on Electronic Commerce and Public Policy, Spring 1999: 23-24

Raab, C.D. (in press) The European Union Directive and the United Kingdom Transposition, Revue française d'administration publique, 89, (2000).

Raab, C.D. and Bellamy, C. (1999) Wiring Up the Deck Chairs?, Parliamentary Affairs, 52(3), (July 1999) pp 518-534

Raab, C.D. and Bennett, C.J., (1998) ‘The Distribution of Privacy Risks: Who Needs Protection?’, The Information Society, 14(4):263-274.

Raab, C.D. (1999) 'La transposition de la directive européenne sur la protection des données personnelles au Royaume-Uni' ('The Transposition of the European Union Data Protection Directive in the United Kingdom'), Revue française d'administration publique, numéro 89, janvier-mars 1999, pp. 21-36.

Stanton, N., Ashleigh, M.J., Roberts, A.D. & Xu, F. (2001) 'Testing Hollnagel’s Contextual Control Model: Assessing team behaviour in a human supervisory control task'. Paper submitted to International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, 5, 1, 21-33

Swann G.M.P. "Selling Practice and Market Evolution: The Case of VR" - submitted to International Journal of Industrial Organisation. [A revised paper was submitted in January 2000, and a final decision is expected in March.]

Terranova, T. (in press) ‘Free Labor: producing culture for the digital economy’ Social Text.

Terranova, T. and L Parisi, (forthcoming) ‘The turbulence of origins: the emergence of control in genetic engineering and artificial life, Camera Obscura,

Thomas, G. and Wyatt, S. (1999) ‘Shaping Cyberspace - interpreting and transforming the Internet’ Research Policy, 28(7) 681-698

Vurdubakis, T. and Bloomfield, B. (in press) ‘Monsters, networks and the writing of displacement’, Organization, 4, (Nov. 1999).

Vurdubakis, T. and Bloomfield, B.(in press) ‘What a performance! Consultancy and its discontents’, Organization, 5

Watts, T., G.M.P. Swann, and N. Pandit, (1998) Virtual Reality and Innovation Potential, Business Strategy Review, 9(3): 45-54.

Watts, T., P. Swann, and N. Pandit, (1999) Is Virtual Reality Werklijk een Business-Tool (in Dutch) PEM,15(1): 3-13

Webster, F. (1998) ‘What are our universities for?’, Political Quarterly, 69(3), pp.234-240.

Webster, F. (1999) 'From Mass Production to Customized Services: A Challenge for Universities', Lifelong Learning in Europe, IV (4): 230-234.

Webster, F. (2000) 'Higher Education', in Gary Browning, Abigail Halcli and Frank Webster (eds), Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Sage,2000, pp.312-327.

Webster, F. and Smith A. (1999) 'Changing Ideas of the University' in M.Thorne (ed), Universities in the Future, Office of Science and Technology, Sept. 1999, pp.17-42.

Woolgar, S. (1998) A New Theory of Innovation? Prometheus,16(4): 441-453.


Books, Book Chapters and Conference Proceedings

Allen, J. P., (1997) The evolution of handheld computers: Problem framing and network building, in, K. Kumar and J. I. DeGross (eds.) Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Conference on Information Systems, New York, ACM Press.

Branscombe, N.R. & Spears, R. (1999). Social psychology: Past, present and some predictions for the future. In S.F. Davis & J. Halonen (Eds.), The Many Faces of Psychological Research in the Twenty First Century. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Carver, S. (in press) Developing web-based GIS/MCE: improving access to data and spatial decision support tools. in J-C.Thill (ed) Multi-criteria decision-making and analysis: a geographic information sciences approach. Ashgate.

Carver, S. & Peckham, R. (in press) Internet-based applications of GIS in planning. In S.Geertman, S.Openshaw & J.Stillwell (eds) Geographical information and planning: European perspectives. Springer-Verlag.

Crook, C. & Light, P. Information technology and the culture of student learning. In J. Bliss, Light, P. & Salijo, R. Learning Sites: Social and technological resources for learning Elsevier. (in press)

Crook, C.K. Computers and communications in teaching and learning. Invited contribution to Scottish Universities Workshop on IT in Higher Education, Edinburgh, February, 1998.

Crook, C.K. Representing study to students: How technology re-mediates the educational community. Keynote address presented to SEDA Learning Technologies Network Conference, Southampton, April, 1998.

Ellemers, N., Barreto, M., & Spears, R. (1999). Identity needs and contextual restrictions: Strategic responses to social reality. In N. Ellemers, R. Spears & B. Doosje (Eds.) Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ellemers, N., Spears, R., & Doosje, B. (Eds.) (1999). Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content. Oxford: Blackwell.

Goddard, J, and Cornford, J (1999), ‘The virtual university is the university made concrete’ Chapter for a book derived from the October 1999 Academia Europaea Conference.

Harvey, P. and Porter, G. (in press) From Information to Conversation, in Cutting Edge Research Group (ed) On/Off Across: Language, Identity and New Technologies, London: I.B. Tauris.

Knights, D., Noble, F., Vurdubakis, T., and Willmott, H. The Virtual Market Place?: Implications from the Financial Services Sector, Research in Progress Paper, Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Information Systems, 3-6 June 1998 Aix-en-Provence.

Knights, D., Noble, F., Vurdubakis, T., Trust and Virtuality: Banking on Cyberspace, Proceedings of the European Group for Organisational Studies (EGOS) 14th Colloquium Maastricht 9-11 July 1998.

Knights, D., Politics and power in managing information systems. Panel proceedings published at the 19th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Dec. 13-16 1998.

Knights,D., Noble, F., Vurdubakis, T., Willmott, H., ‘The Importance of Being ‘Virtual’" : Information Technology and the Disposal of Mass’ in ‘What is the matter?’ The Consumption of Mass, Materials, Organization and Design’, ed. David Knights and Rolland Munro, under negotiation with publishers.

Lash, S. Critique of Information (London: Sage, 2000).

Lea, M., Spears, R., Watt, S. & DeGroot, D. (in press). Knowing me, knowing you: Effects of visual anonymity in computer-mediated communication. In Postmes, T., Spears, R., Lea, M. & Reicher, S.D. (Eds.). SIDE issues centre-stage: Recent developments in studies of deindividuation in groups. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Light, P. Computers for learning: Social Perspectives. Invited paper presented to British Psychological Society, Wessex and Wight Branch, Bournemouth, April, 1998.

Light, P. & Light, V. Analysing asynchronous interactions: Computer-mediated communication in a conventional undergraduate setting. In K. Littleton & P. Light (Eds.) Learning with Computers: Analysing productive interaction. London, Routledge, 1999.

Light, P., Light, V. & Nesbitt, E. Networked resources for communication in support of campus-based university education. Paper presented to EU funded research seminar Approaches psychologiques et psychosociales des dispositifs de formation à l'arrivée des nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication,Universite de Neuchatel, Switzerland, June 1998.

Light, P., White, S., Harnad, S., Light, V. & Nesbitt, E. Student experiences of Skywriting’. Paper presented to SEDA Learning Technologies Network Conference, Southampton, April 1998 (

Light, V., Nesbitt, E & Light, P. Face to face discussion and archived email discussion in advanced undergraduate education. Paper presented to British Educational Research Association Conference ‘Higher Education in Close-up’, Preston, July 1998 and online at

Light, V., Nesbitt, E., Light, P & White, S. Variety is the spice of life: computer communication in support of campus-based university courses. Paper presented at CAL 99: Virtuality in Education, London, March 1999.

Lunt, P. and Moor, L. (in press) Electronic Shopping' and 'Leisure Shopping. In Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture. London: Routledge.

McGrail, B.A.(1998) Researching 'The Virtual Remake of High-Rise Housing': Notes on a Researcher's Experience of relations with User groups, in Elisabeth Shove (Ed), Researchers, Users and Parachutes, ESRC/Lancaster University.

McGrail, B. A. (2000) (forthcoming) 'Technological Twilights? Older people, public housing policy and the vertical village', in Sheila Peace & Caroline Holland (eds.) Innovations, Adaptations, Segregations: Accomodating an Ageing Society, Aldershot: Ashgate. 22-28

Noble, F., Chair and organizer of panel on ‘Global technologies, local cultures: The case of "virtual financial services"’, Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Information Systems, Copenhagen, 23-5 June, 1999.

Postmes, T., Spears, R., & Lea, M. (1999). Social identity, social norms, and social influence. In N. Ellemers, R. Spears, & B. Doosje (eds.). Social Identity: Context, Commitment, Content. Oxford Blackwell.164-183

Postmes, T., Spears, R., Lea, M. & Reicher, S.D. (Eds., in press). SIDE issues centre-stage: Recent developments in studies of deindividuation in groups. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Raab, C.D. (1998) Electronic Confidence: Trust, Information and Public Administration, chapter 8: 113-133 in I. Snellen & W. van de Donk (eds.), Handbook of Public Administration in an Information Age, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 1998

Raab, C.D. (1999) From Balancing to Steering: New Directions for Data Protection, chapter 3: 68-93 in C. Bennett & R. Grant (eds.),Visions of Privacy: Policy Approaches for the Digital Age, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999.

Raab, C.D. (1999) Identity Checks - and Balances, 87-95 in E. Bort & R. Keat (eds.), The Boundaries of Understanding: Essays in Honour of Malcolm Anderson, Edinburgh: International Social Sciences Institute, 1999.

Raab, C.D.(1999) National Privacy Laws: United Kingdom, Sec. 16.07, pp. 83-96 in C. Prins & E-J. Louwers (eds.), International Computer Law, Publication 318, Release 14; Matthew Bender.

Raab, C.D., Bennett, C.J., Gellman, R.M. and Waters, N.(1998), Application of a Methodology Designed to Assess the Adequacy of the Level of Protection of Individuals With Regard to Processing Personal Data: Test of the Method on Several Categories of Transfer, Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General XV, 1998; (also at

Raab, C.D., Bennett, C.J., Gellman, R.M. and Waters, N.(1999), Judging Privacy: How Adequate is Data Protection in Electronic Commerce?, 29-34 in Computers, Freedom and Privacy 1999 Conference Papers, Washington, DC: The Association for Computing Machinery, 1999.

Raab, C.D. and Williams, G. (1999), Privacy in the GII: Issues, Processes and Solutions, 21-41 in S. Fischer-Hübner, G. Quirchmayr & L. Yngström (eds.),User Identification and Privacy Protection: Applications in Public Administration and Electronic Commerce, Proceedings of the Joint IFIP WG 8,5 and WG 9.6 Working Conference, 14-15 June 1999, Kista, Sweden: Stockholm University/Royal Institute of Technology.

Raab, C.D. (1999) 'Governing Privacy; Systems, Participants and Policy Instruments', in Proceedings of Ethicomp99: Fifth International Conference, Rome, 1999. CDROM publication.

Spears, R. (in press). The SIDE model: A state of the art. In T. Postmes, R. Spears, M. Lea, & S.D Reicher (Eds.) SIDE issues centre stage: Recent Developments of in Studies of De-individuation in Groups. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Spears, R., Lea, M., & Postmes, T. (2000). Social psychological theories of computer-mediated communication: Social pain or social gain? In P. Robinson and H. Giles (eds.) The Handbook of Language and Social Psychology, (2nd Edition).(in press)

Stone R. and G. M. P. Swann, "Virtually a Market?", chapter in the forthcoming, International Handbook on VR, to be published in the USA. [Our paper was submitted in summer 1999, and the expected publication date for this is now 2001.]

Swann G M P "What is Constraining the Growth of the VR Market", Proceedings of the 1999 VR World Congress, Brussels (1999)

Swann, G M P. and T. Watts: (forthcoming) Vision, Narrative and Market: The Economics of Virtual Reality, provisional title Routledge, 2001

Terranova, T. (1998) Connecting Art: Media Technologies and Gender Trouble in the Distributed Difference Engine. In A. Dimitrakaki, P. Skelton, M. Tralla (eds) Private Views: Space Re/cognized in Contemporary Art from Estonia and Britain The Women’s Art Library, 1998

Terranova,T. (in press) ‘Of systems and networks: digital regeneration and the pragmatics of postmodern knowledge’ in J Gilbert (ed) Cultural Politics London: Lawrence & Wishart

Thomas, G. and S Wyatt, ‘Access is not the only problem: using and controlling the Internet resources’ in S Wyatt, F Henwood, N Miller and P Senker (eds) Technology and Inequality: questioning the information society, (in press).

Vurdubakis, T. and Bloomfield, B. (in press) The Vision Thing: Constructions of Technology and the Future in Management Advice. In T. Clark and R. Fincham (eds.) (Blackwell, 2000)

Watts, T. and Butler, J. (1999) Establishing the Role for a New Technology: The Case of Virtual Reality. In During, W., Oakey, R.P. and Muktar, M. (eds.) Technology-Based Firms in the 1990's Vol. VI, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 69-80

Webster, F. (1998) ‘What are our universities for?’, Political Quarterly, 69(3), pp.234-240.

Webster, F. (1999) ‘Democracy and Information in a Network Society’, in Sally Criddle et al. (eds), Information Landscapes for a Learning Society, London: Library Association, pp.235-253.

Webster, F. (2000) 'Higher Education', in Gary Browning, Abigail Halcli and Frank Webster (eds), Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Sage,2000, pp.312-327.

Webster, F. (2000) 'Postmodernity and Higher Education', in S.Lax (ed) Access Denied, London, Macmillan

White, S., Light, V., Nesbitt. E. & Light, P. Educating Rita in the cyber mall: a glimpse of HE teaching in the new millennium. Paper presented at CAL 99: Virtuality in Education, London, March, 1999.

White, S., Hall, W. & Maier, P. Tortoise or hare? Racing slowly into the virtual future. Paper presented at CAL 99: Virtuality in Education, London, March, 1999.

Wigboldus, D., Spears, R., & Semin, G. (1999). Categorization, content and context of communicative behaviour. In N. Ellemers, R. Spears & B. Doosje (Eds.) Social identity: Context, commitment, content. Oxford: Blackwell. 147-163

Wittel, A. 'Das Silicon Alley: Ein Ausflug in die Londoner Multimediabranche' in A. Wittel and I. Gotz, eds. Arbeits- und Organisationsethnographie, forthcoming.

Wittel, A. and S. Beck ‘Forschung ohne Field und doppeten Boden: Anmerkungen zur Ethnographie von Handlungsnetzen’ in A. Wittel and I. Gotz (eds.) Arbeits- und Organisationsethnographie, forthcoming.

Wyatt, S. ‘Talking about the future: Metaphors of the Internet’ in N Brown, B Rappert and A Webster (eds) Contested Futures, Aldershot: Ashgate (in press).

Woolgar S. (Editor) 'Virtual Society? Get Real! The social science of electronic technologies' (2002-forthcoming) Oxford: Oxford University Press


Virtual Society? Discussion Papers

Burt, E and Taylor J.A. (1999) Information and communication technologies: re-shaping the voluntary sector in the information age? Report. Centre for the Study of Telematics and Governance [CSTAG], Glasgow Caledonian University, June 1999 (also available at

Carver, S. (1997) Using (geo)graphical environments on the World Wide Web to improve public participation in social science research. in AGOCG Report on Graphics, Visualization and the Social Sciences, Loughborough University.

Carver, S., Kingston, R. & Turton, I. (1998) Review of graphical environments on the World Wide Web as a means of widening public participation in social science research. Report prepared for the Advisory Group on Computer Graphics (AGOCG) Computer Graphics, Visualisation and the Social Sciences.

Carver, S., Evans, A., Kingston, R., and Turton, I. (April 1999) Virtual Slaithwaite. Case Study Report, School of Geography, University of Leeds. 

Carver, S., Evans, A., Kingston, R., and Turton, I. (October 1999) Yorkshire Dales Reforestation: An Experimental Web Based Public Participation Woodland Planting System. Case Study Report, School of Geography, University of Leeds.

Liff, S., F. Steward & P. Watts, (1999) Cybercafes and Telecottages: Increasing public access to computers and the internet, Report circulated to survey participants and other interested parties. (also available at

Liff, S. (2000) ‘Information and Communication Technologies and the UK 2000-2005: Social Inclusion and Exclusion’ commissioned consultancy report to the Director General of the Research Councils, January 2000.

McGrail, B. A. (1999b), Interim Report on Tower Block Statistics, Edinburgh: The Open University/ESRC.

McGrail, B.A. (1999c) Highly Thought Of? New Electronic Technologies & the Tower Block, Edinburgh: The Open University/ESRC.

Murray, L: Virtual Reality: Why is it not a Commercial Reality? MSc Project, PREST, University of Manchester, 1997

van Breemen, B., T. Buckley, P. Handforth, R. Millar and T. Shah: Virtual Reality, MBA Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management Project, Manchester Business School 1998

Wyatt, S. Multimedia and ICTs: Disadvantaged/ Vulnerable Groups, report prepared for the Health Education Authority, London, October 1999, 21pp


Virtual Society? Project Websites (Brown) (Burrows) (Burt) (Carver);

also (Virtual Slaithwaite) (Nuclear Waste Disposal) (Yorkshire Dales) (Harvey) (Hughes) (Ibbotson) (Lash) (Light) (Mason) (McGrail) (Robins) (Programme web site)



Burt, E. and Taylor, J. (2000) "'Electronic innovations in the voluntary sector: insights from the inside", ARVAC Bulletin, no5 Jan 2000, 16-17

Burt, E. and Taylor, J. (2000) "Making the right call", supplement to NCVO News, May 2000, 7

Burt, E. and Taylor, J.A. (2000) "Developing Strategic Vision Using Technology", Charities Management, Spring 2000, 25-28

Liff, S, Steward, F and Watts, P (2000) Inclusion in the Information Society - The Distinctive Role of E-Gateways. Teleworker, 7, 1, 13-16

Lunt, P. and Livingstone, S. A symposium was presented at the British Psychological Society Social Psychology Section Annual Conference at Kent in September 1998. The symposium entitled ‘Technological mediation: The social psychology of information communication technologies’ was convened by Peter Lunt and Sonia Livingstone. Peter Lunt presented a paper on Mediated Consumption: Reactions to e-commerce.

McGrail, B. (1999) The Virtual remake of High-Rise Housing: Electronic Technologies and Social Space. Newsletters, 1 and 2 (4pp each)

McGrail, B. (1999) Highly Thought of? New Electronic Technologies and the Tower Block. Report, 120pp

Woolgar, S and Ingram, C.S. (2000) Virtual Society? the social science of new technologies, Assignation, 17, 2, 1-3. Article for Asliib - the social sciences information group.

Newspaper articles:

"Do the plugged in opt out?", Times Higher Education Supplement, 15/8/97, p.4 (Crook)

"Village digs up its Victorian past" by Ester Leach in Independent on Sunday, 7th June 1998. (Carver)

"Residents voice mixed views on village planning" by Brigid Walsh in Huddersfield Examiner 8th June 1998. (Carver)

"Villagers caught in Web for planning trials" in Yorkshire Evening Post 6th June 1998. (Carver)

"Info cliches suit the Euro funders", The Times Higher Education Supplement, Jan 22 1999, 14-15. (Jon Agar) 

McGrail, B: Chronology of Media Items, 6th Jan – 1st Feb 1999 

FIRST WAVE (Major Nationals)

SECOND WAVE (Regional Press, Industry Press and Sundays)

THIRD WAVE (Broadcasters)




"There's virtually no equality here", The Guardian, 9/9/1999 (Woolgar, Loader)

"Teenagers desert the Internet, study finds" Technology News, 2/12/99, TechWeb: (Woolgar, Wyatt)

"Consumer Confidence", BBC Web Wise, 12/99 (Lunt)

"Internet drop-outs find surfing the Web too boring to bother", Sunday Express, 23/1/00 (Wyatt)



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